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DHA for Babies: The Importance for Baby’s Brain Development

DHA for babies is important for brain and nervous system development, especially in the first years of life. 

When my babies were young, we didn’t know as much was we do today about critical nutrients such as DHA and the DHA benefits for cognitive development.

As a pediatric nutritionist, I screen the diets of the kids I work with, and look for gaps, especially in the amount of DHA they consume. This helps me identify whether they need an added DHA supplement to their diet or not.

From my perspective, we can still use more education, awareness, and action about critical nutrients for baby in the first year of life and into the early years of development.

One nutrient I want to see get more attention is docosahexaenoic acid, otherwise known as DHA.

In this article, I’ll explore DHA, the role of DHA in brain development, and how you can ensure your baby is getting the DHA they need.

DHA for Baby's Brain: Benefits, and How to Get Enough

What is DHA Good for?

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. It’s found in food and is particularly good for human brain development.

It influences brain functioning in many ways, such as sending messages throughout the brain (called neurotransmission) and growing new connections and pathways for those messages (called neurogenesis).

DHA is also a critical nutrient for eye development. It acts as a structural building block of the retina, helping with your baby’s visual acuity.

But, let’s focus on the brain.

The brain is lipid rich—in other words, it’s full of fat.

Research suggests more than half of the brain is made up of fat, especially concentrated in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

Of those PUFAs in the brain, DHA is the most significant fatty acid. Babies are born with stores of DHA in the brain, which accumulate during pregnancy.

During early infancy, rapid accumulation of DHA in the brain persists.

What are the DHA Benefits for the Brain?

The brain is divided into lobes and each lobe has specific functions. The frontal and prefrontal lobes are most influenced by DHA.

The frontal lobes of the brain are responsible for focus and attention, planning and problem solving, which are known as executive functioning skills.

The prefrontal lobe is tied to social, emotional and behavioral development.

Researchers believe that optimal levels of DHA, particularly in the frontal and prefrontal areas of the brain, are very important during the early years when the brain is rapidly growing and developing.

Healthy development of the brain sets the stage for future intelligence and socio-emotional development.

DHA and Intelligence

Adequate levels of DHA is tied to the working and future intelligence of your child, or his cognition. The word cognition encompasses a wide variety of brain abilities.

For example, your child’s ability to pay attention, remember what he’s learned, and his language development rest on cognition.

Cognition also includes problem solving, comprehension, reasoning, computation, perception, reading, and speech.

As you can see, healthy brain development in the early years may directly impact your child’s current and future mental abilities, thinking and performance, and future success in school. 

Why Moms Should Focus on Prenatal DHA

Babies get DHA from their mothers during pregnancy. Your baby received prenatal DHA from the foods you ate. If you ate rich sources of DHA foods, or took DHA supplementation, your child is off to a good start.

During the second half of pregnancy, especially the third trimester, DHA rapidly accumulates in your baby’s brain.

By age four, a child will have up to 4 grams of DHA stored in the brain.

Studies have shown prenatal DHA has positive outcomes for baby, including better social behavior, higher social development scores, more verbal intelligence, lower pre-term birth rates, and more.

Babies Need DHA

As mentioned, during infancy, your baby’s brain is growing rapidly, and he needs to get DHA from external sources.

Breast milk and infant formula supplemented with DHA, are ideal. 

However, breast milk is a likely good source of DHA only if mom’s diet is rich in DHA foods.

In fact, studies show when moms take DHA supplements after their baby was born, the concentrations of DHA in breast milk is higher.

Other studies have found higher levels of DHA in the tissues of breastfed babies compared to those infants who are fed baby formula.

High concentrations of DHA in breast milk have also been tied to positive outcomes for baby such as better adjustment to changes in the environment, better attention scores, and better memory skills, according to a 2016 review published in Nutrients.

DHA Deficiency: Many Kids Aren’t Getting Enough  

The diets of children in the United States are lacking in DHA. According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), most infants and young toddlers aged 1-3 years are not getting enough DHA. This really hasn’t changed much in the last decade.

Many experts advise consuming pre-formed DHA in order to reach and maintain ideal brain concentrations and related brain functions.

While DHA can be created from ALA within the body, this process isn’t ideal. The enzymes required to make DHA from ALA are in high demand from other fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (LA).

Also, due to the nature of the typical American diet, which is high in omega-6 PUFAs, enzymes are often prioritized for processing those fatty acids rather than converting them to DHA.

In the end, the conversion of ALA to DHA within the body is inefficient and inadequate, thus making DHA a conditionally essential nutrient.

Direct dietary intake of DHA, eating DHA foods, or using a DHA supplement (like a liquid baby’s DHA source) is the preferred and optimal method of ensuring enough DHA for your child.

*Below, you will find an affiliate link for my book, Fearless Feeding. Clicking on this helps support this website.

Nutritional Needs for DHA in Children 

Recommendations are still emerging, but the latest recommendations for the general population are to consume 250 to 500 mg EPA + DHA per day, according to a 2016 review in Nutrients. (EPA and DHA are packaged together in supplements, like fish oil supplements, and also found together in food.)

In my book, Fearless Feeding, my co-author and I break down the recommendations for pregnancy and childhood, using the global recommendations from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which are more detailed for children:

Recommendations for DHA

AgeAmount of DHA
Pregnant & Breastfeeding Moms200 mg DHA per day     


8-12 oz. seafood per week*

Babies, 0-6 months0.1  – 0.18% of total energy intake
Babies, 6-24 months10-12 mg/kg/day of DHA
Toddlers, 2-4 yearsEPA + DHA: 100-150 mg per day
Children, 4-6 yearsEPA + DHA: 150-200 mg per day
Children, 6-10 yearsEPA + DHA: 200-250 mg per day
*USDA recommendations

The usual intake of DHA among young children is low– closer to an average of 100 mg per day.

DHA Foods: What are the Best Sources?

Sources of pre-formed DHA include oils from micro-algae, fatty fish (especially salmon, mackerel, sardines, and herring), fish oil, meat and eggs.

Breast milk is a source of DHA, as mentioned above, but the concentration of DHA in breast milk varies among women, and is dependent on the diet and whether or not they use a prenatal DHA supplement.

It’s been noted in U.S. women, the concentration of DHA in breast milk is higher when the diet includes fish, eggs and milk compared to women who consume a highly processed diet without sources of seafood.

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How to Make Sure Your Baby Gets Enough DHA

The DHA benefits are clear: adequate amounts of DHA is very important for your baby’s brain growth, early development, and vision.

Here are some steps you can take to ensure you and your baby get enough DHA:

1. Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers 

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), an average daily intake of 200 to 300 mg of DHA will ensure a sufficient concentration of DHA in breast milk.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the 2020 DGA recommend a minimum of 8 – 12 ounces of low mercury fish per week. This can be achieved by eating 2 seafood meals per week (e.g., herring, canned light tuna, salmon).

Canned light tuna is an affordable option to meet these recommendations.

If you’re worried about heavy metals, the AAP says,

“The concern regarding the possible risk from intake of excessive mercury or other contaminants is offset by the neurobehavioral benefits of an adequate DHA intake and can be minimized by avoiding the intake of predatory fish (e.g., pike, marlin, mackerel, tile fish, swordfish).”

If you have a history of poor nutrition (chronic dieting, eating disorder, un-supplemented vegan, or poor food quality, for example), you may require a DHA supplement as well as multivitamins.

2. Breastfeed your baby, for the first 6 months, if possible

Breastfeeding is beneficial for all babies, even premature babies, and for several reasons. However, in order to maximize DHA, focus on DHA foods in your diet through the consistent use of DHA-rich food sources, and/or take a DHA supplement.

3. If not breastfeeding, choose an infant formula with a DHA supplement

In 2002, infant formula makers started adding DHA to more closely mimic breast milk and in response to studies showing higher IQ scores from babies who were breastfed compared to those fed formula. For formula-fed infants, choose a baby formula that is supplemented with DHA.

4. Offer seafood each week to your baby or toddler

For your baby or toddler (6 months to 2 years), include 3 – 4 ounces seafood per week. You can divide this into two servings weekly.

For children 2 – 4 years of age, ensure about 6 ounces of seafood per week. Again, you can divide this total into smaller, child-size portions.

If you’re not sure how to introduce fish to your child, I’ve got some great suggestions for you!

5. Switch to mostly olive and canola oils

This will cut down on the omega-6 fatty acids in the diet, which compete for the enzymes that ensure optimal DHA in the body.

How do you ensure your child is getting enough DHA?

Get the Top DHA Food Sources Here


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